As you think, see, sense, dream, or try to solve a crossword puzzle or start to learn how to drive, the brain is constantly active, engrossing all the information it is presented with, compressing and re-connecting the existing data, and integrating all of it into an experience for you. Everything you see, understand, learn is all shaped by the brain. Based on thoughts, emotions and previous experiences the brain creates its own narratives and it is what ultimately drives your behavior
Neuro-feedback is a way to train brain activity. It is a non-invasive method of direct brain function training. It is helpful for people that have brain imbalances. Basically it is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Brain waves tells us about how you feel and perform functions your it deals with stress levels, mood and overall brain function.
Neurofeedback is also called EEG biofeedback it offers the treatments for persons that are suffering from some disorders like eating disorders and mood disorders. It stabilizes the brain to reduce anxiety and depression and early recovery from eating disorders mood disorders or other addictions.
Some biofeedback provides audio, video, positive and negative feedback for desirable or undesirable activities.
Here electrodes are used (which act like tiny microphones). These are placed on the patient scalp to record and amplify the EEG, or brainwaves and control auditory, visual, and/or tactile feedback which allows learning to take place. This operant learning initiates self-regulation and enhances relaxation, both necessary components of good brain function.
Example A girl had trouble in sleeping and was unable to concentrate on objectives. From our diagnosis we concluded that she is suffering from anxiety disorder. Anxiety was utilizing most of the brain resources so she was unable to concentrate. We made the neurofeedback training program. We asked her to watch her favorite movie and we measured her brain activity when there was a loving scene there was a positive feedback and she was in non-anxious state and when there was some stressed scene she was in anxious state .With practice her skills improved and now she has no trouble in sleeping and she can concentrate well.
How it works
Our brain has the whole control of our body and is a complex system of chemical and electrical activities with about 100 billion neurons. Brain is designed to adapt to changes in the body and our environment and function well at all times. However, due to some genetics and environment condition brain does not function as well as it is able. The brain then becomes "dys-regulated".
Simply put, a dysregulated brain tends to be over-stimulated when it is supposed to be calm and under-stimulated when it is supposed to be attentive. Sometimes, the brain self-corrects. When it doesn't, this dys-regulation becomes “the new normal”. So it makes sense that we should be able to re-train the brain to function optimally, the way it was designed. In neurofeedback training, we work in conjunction with other treatments. When your brain is better regulated, it allows you to change behavioirs and thoughts.
Clinical applications It is used in some disorders like Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Stroke Concussion Anxiety Enhancement of performance by surgeon’s athletes and artists Drug addiction PTSD Sleeping disorder Schizophrenia Insomnia Dyslexia Autistic spectrum disorder Epilepsy Depression
There are some adverse effects of neurofeedback These includes Mental fatigue Return of old feeling in dreams Dizziness nausea and light sensitivity
This is a new technology in the field of non –invasive electrical stimulation of the human brain and it is directly having an interference with the cortical rhythms. tACS is the external application of oscillating electrical currents and it has the ability to influence cortical excitability and activity. The expectation is to synchronise or desynchronize with a since resonance frequency through cortical oscillations. If this is applied for a long time it can lead to neuroplastic effects which is the ability to bring about changes to the brain in terms of function. When tACS is applied in phase it can lead to improvement in the cognition . Depending on the types of waves applied , for instance if alpha rhythms are applied it helps in improving the motor performance and application of beta intrusions can deteriorate it. tACS when applied with both alpha and beta frequencies can induce retinal phosphenes.
When used in most studies tACS is used without a DC offset and the simple form uses sinusoidal stimulation. Also other wave forms are possible such as rectangular current shapes. The vital parameters which could shape the direction and duration of tACS induced effects happen to be the intensity, phase of stimulation and the frequency. However, the effect of tACS on motor evoked potential hasn’t been studied in detail yet. By increasing the duration of the transcranial direct current stimulation it results in a prolongation of the induced after effects.
tACS may be agreat way to treat schizophrenic patients without detrimental effects. As we all know psychotic disorders are devastating mental diseases which are associated due to the dysfunctional brain networks. Gamma oscillations form a bioelectric market for celebral network disorders with therapeutic and prognostic capacity. It accompanies sensorimotor and cognitive deficits which is already present in schizophrenia.
Thus, use of tACS would be an appropriate way to prevent therapeutic modality as it can influence cognitive performance as well as neural oscillations.
tACS could play a grate role in helping some patients with abnormal oscillatory patterns and the same is true for Parkinson’s disease too. This is achieved through the attenuating or resetting of the anomalous oscillations. The Parkinson’s disease resting tremor can be bisected by tACS.
Further, it is seen that by using a 200 kHz frequency it helps to treat patients with recurrent gliobastoma, which are tumours which can occur in the supportive brain tissue. When high stimulation frequency is applied to the transcranial region it inhibits the growth of treatment resistant tumours with basically no side effects.
In conclusion tACS could become a great technique in the near future for treating patients with mental diseases.
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