Glossary

  • ADC

    ADC stands for Anlogue to Digital Convertor.

  • Alpha waves

    Alpha waves are in the band 8Hz to 13Hz

  • Anodal

    Anodal is a positive flow of current intended to excite.

  • Anode

    Anode is the positive electrode. In foc.us products the anode is labelled "X".

  • Artifacts

    Artifacts are distortions in an EEG signal not related to neuronal activity

  • Band

    Bands are discrete ranges of EEG frequency such as delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma bands

  • bci

    BCI is an acronym for Brain Computer Interface

  • Beta waves

    Beta waves are EEG signals in the 14-30Hz frequency range. β

  • Bias

    The bias is used for common mode rejection to reduce electrical interference.

  • Cathodal

    What is cathodal stimulation? Cathodal stimulation is the negative flow of current designed to inhibit neurons.

  • Cathode

    Cathode is the negative electrode.

  • Contraindications

    A contraindication is a known condition with which tDCS should not be considered e.g. epilepsy is a tDCS contraindication.

  • Contralateral

    Contralateral means the opposite side of the body.

  • Cortical

    The outer layer of the front part of the brain.

  • dlpfc

    DLPFC stands for Dorso-Lateral Pre-Frontal Cortex

  • eeg

    EEG is short for Electro Encepholo Graphy.

  • fnirs

    fNIRS is an acronym for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy

  • focus

    Focus is a mental state enabling self-actualization

  • Glossary

    An alphabetical list of words relating to a specific subject with explanations;

  • Montage

    Montage means the location of electrodes.

  • Neuroplasticity

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to learn by making new connections.

  • Phosphenes

    Phosphenes are a sensation of white light caused by electrodes placed to close to the eyes.

  • Placebo

    Placebo is a sham stimulation where no current is delivered after the initial ramping.

  • Ramping

    Ramping is the gradual increase from zero to target current level performed at the start of a stimulation session for comfort.

  • reference

    The Reference electrode is used to take potential difference measurements for all other EEG electrodes.

  • Shunting

    Shunting refers to the electricity that flows through the skin or skull rather than the intended route through the brain.

  • tacs

    tACS is an acronym for transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation.

  • tdcs

    tDCS - transcranial direct current stimulation

  • tpcs

    tPCS is an acronym for transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation.

  • trcs

    tRCS is an acronym for transcranial Rippled Current Stimulation.

  • trns

    tRNS is an acronym for transcranial Random Noise Stimulation.